April 1, 2023

Steel Production: Steel Production in Turkey

Steel manufacturing company in Turkey has been increasing in recent years. It is known that steel production increased by 3.7% in 2021 compared to 2020. As a result of this increase, steel production reached 1.95 billion tons. In 1996, with the signing of the European Coal and Steel Community agreement between the European Union and Turkey, taxes on the steel trade were abolished. The abolition of these taxes was mutual. As a result of the agreement, iron and steel products can be sold to European Union countries tax-free.

The iron and steel companies actively operating in Turkey are privately owned. These companies constantly utilize technological innovations to consolidate the country’s industry in the global market. The iron and steel sector in Turkey continues to develop and maintain its efficiency. The companies in Turkey are the 4th sector that develops the economy.

With effective marketing strategies and competitive prices, iron and steel manufacturers export everywhere in the world. With a production of 7.4 million tons in 2021, Turkey accounts for 31% of total steel exports. Iron and steel exporters flawlessly complete every process from raw material procurement to production. These production methods, which care about the compatibility of the ecological balance that adapts to the climate and nature, are gaining value day by day.

Iron and steel consumption in Turkey is also quite high. Steel is needed in every field from infrastructure works to construction sectors. Many products used in daily life also contain steel. The place and importance of steel are very important for the development of many industrial sectors. Steel enables countries to develop and increase their welfare levels.

What is Steel?

Steel comes together from the combination of iron and carbon elements. Steel is a type of alloy. What gives steel various properties is that the elements it contains consist of a chemical composition. The compositions formed in the internal structure of steel are formed by the addition of alloying elements. Structural changes are achieved by applying different processes and processing to steel.

Steel can also be obtained by recycling scrap iron. Steel exposed to heat can be shaped by casting. Steels are classified according to their properties. These classifications are as follows:

Carbon alloy steel

Steels are classified according to production methods

Steels are separated according to the shape of the product

Steels vary according to the area of use

Steels separated according to production programs

Steels vary according to their deoxidation status

All types of steel are sensitive to heat treatment. Thanks to the chemical, they have a certain degree of hardness. By adjusting this degree of hardness correctly, various deformations are prevented. Thus, steel gains qualities and shows resistance to high temperatures. Industrial companies that are suppliers of steel products prefer the types of steel that they can use in their own fields. In short, it can be said that each sector needs steel processed in different ways.

How Steel is Produced (Steel Making)?

Raw steel alloys are essentially iron manufacturers and carbon. Carbon bonds with iron to form a strong molecular structure. The resulting lattice microstructure helps to achieve certain material properties, such as tensile strength and hardness, which are relied upon in steel.

Approximately 1/3 of the world’s steel production comes from steel scrap, with the remaining 2/3 coming from iron ore. In its pure initial form, steel is on average 1000 times stronger than iron and can be easily recycled without loss of strength. Today, steel production is done with two different types of production methods.

The first one is the steel production process in steel mills by the “Oxygen Blowing Method” and the other one is the production method in “Electric Arc Furnace” where steel scraps are used as input raw materials. Production by oxygen blowing method; Oxygen blowing method is the most common production method used most frequently in steel production. It is used in integrated iron and steel plants. In these integrated iron and steel mills, the ore in the form of iron oxide is realized after it becomes a higher grade with various enrichments.

It is then subjected to smelting in a blast furnace at approximately 1,300 degrees Celsius and 4.3% C content with coke and flux material containing mainly calcium oxide (CaO). Another type of production is electric arc furnace production; in arc furnace plants, scrap suitable for the steel alloy to be produced is used instead of using ore as input. Since very high temperatures can be reached in such furnaces, steel scrap can be used directly.

What are the Methods Used in Steelmaking?

There are 4 types of methods used in steel making. These methods are as follows:

  • Bessemer-Thomas method: It is the method focused on liquid steel production. After the air is enriched with oxygen, steel production is carried out by giving pure oxygen. As a result of the emergence of this steel production, production has greatly accelerated. The process takes approximately 25 to 30 minutes. The exterior of the furnace where steel is produced is still made of steel, while the interior is made of heat-resistant bricks.
  • Siemens-Martin method: One of the most widely used steel manufacturers‘ methods until recent years. Production is achieved by melting and recycling scrap iron and steel products. Siemens-Martin furnace is used in this steel production method. This furnace is operated with a chimney and air gas. Carbon is burned when the temperature reaches 1700 degrees Celsius.
  • Steel production in electric arc furnaces: In these furnaces, scrap steels are spun into high-quality steels. The vast majority of steel production in the world is realized thanks to these furnaces. Stainless steels are produced in arc furnaces and offered to consumers. Production capacity in electric arc furnaces varies between 50 and 150 tons. At the same time, the production time is 1 or 2 hours.

  • Steel production in a basic oxygen furnace: It has some differences compared to electric arc furnaces. The reactions occurring in these furnaces continue autogenously. The raw material of basic oxygen is liquid metal. The remaining part is steel scrap or ore.

Steel manufacturing company in Turkey (World Ranking Companies)

Turkey steel manufacturers have a large share in steel production in the world. In the word steel list of crude steel producers, there are also companies from Turkey. While Erdemir Group was among the top 50, Habaş, İçdaş, and Diler Group continued to dominate. Çolakoğlu Metalurji, which ranks 110th on the list, is also included in the ranking. Turkish steel producers continue to maintain their place in the list with these achievements and continue to progress with technological innovations.

What is the Main Ingredient of Steel?

The main substance of steel contains the element iron and an average of 0.02% carbon. Silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, and manganese are also present in this alloy in small amounts. These elements are present in the main substance of every steel.

It is possible to add different ingredients according to the properties of the steel. In other words, if you want to add properties to steel, different elements can be added and passed through various processes. Thus, it becomes possible to change the steel according to the area where it will be used. As a result, the efficiency obtained from steel reaches the highest levels.

Where to Buy the Raw Material of Steel?

Turkey has been increasingly recognized for its steel manufactures, and our company Sanarise Industrial, as the leading supplier in Turkey, is dedicated to providing the finest Turkish steel and iron to companies and factories around the world. Our commitment to innovation and our pursuit of excellence in the global market has positioned us as a strong force in the steel industry.

By choosing Sanarise Industrial as your steel and iron supplier, you not only gain access to high-quality materials but also benefit from our extensive knowledge and experience in the sector. Our strong presence in the international market is a testament to our dedication to meeting the growing demand for steel worldwide.

As a main supplier in Turkey, we continuously strive to maintain our position as a top player in the steel industry, providing our customers with unparalleled service and products that meet the highest standards. Contact us today to learn more about our range of steel and iron products and discover how we can help your business excel in the global market.

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