February 24, 2023

Different Types of Transportation used in Turkey and the World

It is possible to make efficient and effective use of many types of transportation. Each system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to its different characteristics, one transportation system may be more advantageous or disadvantageous than another.
The types of transportation used to transport products of different qualities may also differ. It is important to choose systems that are suitable for the characteristics and dimensions of the transported product. There are five types of transportation: road, railroad, pipeline, seaway and airway. When choosing among these methods, which are preferred for international and domestic transportation, costs and transportation times are taken into consideration.
Thanks to globalization, the importance of transportation has increased in recent years. Effective use of transportation types, which are among the transportation units, is important for businesses to provide commercial benefits. It is possible to say that transportation and transportation types ensure the growth and development of commercial activities both domestically and internationally.

Road Transport and Freight Forwarding

Goods transportation by road is one of the most frequently used types of transportation. It is secured by the contract between the sender and the carrier. It is realized for the price determined by the principles and procedures of international road transportation of goods. Goods are delivered door-to-door by road transportation. It can also be used to complement and support other types of transportation.
The vehicles used in transportation by road are selected specifically for the product being transported. It is important that they offer flexibility according to the products and facilitate loading and unloading operations. Frequent loading, door-to-door service and short delivery times are among the advantages of road transportation. The high cost of transportation, the impact of weather conditions, traffic and environmental factors are among the disadvantages.
Road transportation has risen rapidly among the transportation types and has become the most useful type of transportation. Although it has a share in all logistics processes, it is one of the most competitive transportation types. It is especially suitable for products that are likely to break and deteriorate over short distances. Thanks to transportation by highways, it is ensured that goods with high time value and goods that need to be transported from door to door are delivered safely.

Rail Transportation and Shipping

Rail transportation stands out among other types of transportation with its initial investment and maintenance costs. In contrast to high initial costs, low operating costs make this type of transportation stand out. Unlike long distances, it is also preferred for being economical and safe. Its operation is usually carried out by the state.
Railway transportation has a special importance in developed countries. In special projects prepared for railway transportation, the complementary features of highways are taken into consideration. The fact that railway transportation has low costs compared to other types of transportation is one of the main reasons why it is preferred. In addition, it is preferred for reducing the traffic load on highways and preventing environmental pollution.
Railways can be used for freight transportation over long distances. It is suitable for the transportation of goods with low material and temporal value. It can be preferred for goods that do not need to be transported door-to-door and need to be transported continuously in large quantities.

Pipeline Transportation and Shipping

Pipeline transportation is generally used for the transportation of natural gas and oil. As with rail, pipeline transportation is characterized by high initial investment costs. The construction of pipelines above and below sea level requires a lot of economic and technical attention. It is used for the transportation of crude oil and natural gas. It is the most economical way to transport these products. It is preferred for the transportation of liquid or gaseous products.
Pipeline transportation enables large shipments to be realized economically and reliably. In this respect, it is more advantageous compared to other types of transportation. When it comes to the transportation of special products, it offers limited space.
Pipeline transportation has gained importance in the world and in Turkey in recent years. Considering the geographical characteristics of Turkey, it can be said that the number of international crude oil and natural gas pipelines is expected to increase rapidly.

Maritime Transportation and Shipping

Historically, it is seen that transportation first started by sea. A large part of the world is covered with water. Maritime transportation has gained importance due to the fact that the first settlements on the stage of history were also on the waterfront.
Maritime transportation is one of the most frequently used types of transportation. Sea transportation is generally preferred for products that are transported in large quantities and products that need to be transported by container. Especially dry cargoes, liquid and gas, products with low economic value and raw materials are among these products.
A very large part of the transportation and trade in the world is carried out by sea transportation. It is preferred because it has low costs and is safe. Contrary to these features, the long transportation time and inadequate infrastructure of the ports can be restrictive for this type of transportation. In addition, weather conditions are among the factors that negatively affect maritime transportation. Due to these features, it can be said that maritime transportation is not only economical but also risky.
In order to increase the use of maritime transportation, in addition to improving the port infrastructure, the connection of maritime transportation to highways and railways should also be increased. In this direction, an increase in utilization can be achieved by meeting the need for ships.

Air Freight and Transportation

Airline transportation is generally preferred for the transportation of products that require special attention. These products are those that need equipment during transportation such as fresh vegetables and fruits and live flowers. Airline is used to preserve the freshness of these products and to ensure that they are transported with precision. Unlike other types of transportation, the fast and well-equipped airline offers advantages.

The most important factor in the preference of air transportation is that it is fast. As a result, storage costs are also reduced. Other factors are that there is no room for errors in the service. Insurance costs are positively affected due to the safe transportation of high-cost products and low loss rates. The decrease in insurance costs is also effective in the use of air transportation.
When evaluated in terms of unit transportation cost, it is seen that it is quite high compared to other transportation types. Due to the high unit transportation cost, it is generally useful for distances over 500 kilometers. It is less preferred especially due to the distance of airports to the city and the technical inadequacy and lack of capacity of warehouses.

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